Since data recovery is not something everybody will be dealing with on a regular bases, we have listed the terms and abbreviations that are frequently used in the discussion of data recovery.
Apart from the definition of the term or abbreviation, you will find a short explanation of the meaning of each term.
IDE/ATA - IDE is short for Integrated Drive Electronics, while ATA referes to AT Attachment. IDE was created by Western Digital as an implementation of the ATA interface. IDE is an interface standard for connecting storage devices like hard disks and CD/DVD drives in computers.
After the introduction of Serial ATA, the original ATA was renamed to PATA.
eSATA - eSATA is simply External SATA, which is identical to SATA, but intended for external storage devices. The main differences are really the electrical requirements to ensure external devices operate correctly using the SATA interface.
eSATA is competing with other standards like USB and FireWire. Differences are the supported transfer speed and the possible cable lenghts.
FAT - FAT stand for File Allocation Table and is a statically allocated table for keeping information on the data on a storage medium. FAT has a few variants, FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, which each cater to larger storage devices.
Although NTFS is mostly used for modern hard disks to accommodate the increased sizes, FAT is often used on memory cards and flash drives, partially because of the smaller storage sizes, but also for better portability (support by other devices and operating systems).
FireWire - FireWire is the name Apple gave to the IEEE 1394 standard. Like USB, the FireWire interface is a serial bus interface for communication between devices. Apart from storage devices, the FireWire interface is also often found in digital video cameras.
MBR - MBR is short for Master Boot Record, which consists of the first bytes of the first sector on a storage device. The MBR can contain a device signature, information about the partitions on the storage device, and boot information.
NTFS - NTFS is short for New Technology File System. NTFS was introduced by Microsoft in the Windows NT operating system and is used in all later operating systems from Microsoft.
With Windows 2000, a new version of NTFS was introduced, often referred to as NTFS5. It is important to realize that the 5 version refers to the driver and not to the actual file format on disk, which would be 3.0 or 3.1 in that case.
NTFS is the successor of FAT, and adds more security features, allows metadata to be added, and supports larger storage media. NTFS also has support for compression and encryption on disk.
SATA - Serial ATA, or Serial Advanced Technology Attachment is an interface for connecting storage devices, like hard drives and CD/DVD drives, in computers. SATA differes from ATA in that it is a bus interface, and allows for faster transfer speeds, hot swapping of devices, and simplyfies the cabling.
SATA has gone through serveral revisions, with the latest revision 3.0 catering to high transfer rates (6 Gbit/s) to support Solid State Disks (SSD).
SCSI - SCSI or Small Computer System Interface is a standard for connecting and transferring dat between storage devices and computers. SCSI is used for hard disks, tape drives and CD-ROM drives.
As a result of the higher cost, SCSI is mostly used in business environments or for video and audio processing. SCSI disks are often used in a RAID configuration.
USB - USB stands for Universal Serial Bus, and is a standard for communication between devices. USB is a popular way of connecting devices to a computer since it is low cost, fast and includes the option to power devices.
USB has different versions, USB 1.1, USB 2.0 and USB 3.0, each catering to higher transfer speeds. Most external hard disks use USB 2.0 or 3.0.
Although hope to provide you with a little explanation on the common terms, this explanation of terms is by no means meant as a exhaustive discussion on the subjects. Please refer to sites like wikipedia for more in-depth background on each term.